Category: moroccan food

hssoua belboula (Moroccan barley and milk soup…

hssoua belboula (Moroccan barley and milk soup, optionally vegan)

recipe under the cut!

ingredients:

  • 1 cup (200g) barley grits, or pearl barley ground into a coarse meal in a spice / coffee grinder
  • 5 ¾ cups (135cl) water
  • 3 tbsp olive oil
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 2 tsp ground cumin
  • ½ tsp ground black pepper
  • 2 cups (50cl) whole milk (or soy milk plus 2 tbsp vegan margarine–to mimic the higher fat content of whole milk)
  • 2 tbsp butter or vegan margarine
  • 2/3 cup (16cl) evaporated milk (or 1 1/3 cup soy milk simmered over a low flame until it is halved in volume–don’t allow it to reach a rolling boil). [this should not be confused with sweetened condensed milk! you can also make evaporated milk by simmering dairy milk until its volume is about halved.]

instructions:

1. pick through the barley grits to remove debris. wash several times in a large bowl until the water comes away clear.

2. combine barley, water, olive oil, salt, cumin, and black pepper in a medium-sized pot. bring to a boil over medium heat, then reduce to a simmer and cook for 30-35 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the barley grits are tender (this time may differ depending on how fine or coarse your grits are).

3. stir in the whole milk (or soy milk and margarine) and continue to simmer for 3-5 minutes.

4. remove from heat and stir in the butter (or margarine) and evaporated milk. taste and adjust spices.

* you can adjust the thickness of this soup by increasing or decreasing the amount of milk and water added, or by using finer or coarser barley grits. you can also make this soup without evaporated milk–just replace half the water with milk.

hssoua is made with barley or semolina and is a common breakfast food during Ramadan. it is eaten with additional cumin and/or olive oil, or sweetened with sugar or honey.

baghrir (crêpes “mille trous” / Moroccan…

baghrir (crêpes “mille trous” / Moroccan crêpes with a “thousand holes”)

recipe under the cut!

makes 12-14 crêpes

INGREDIENTS:

for the baghrir:

  • 1 ½ cup (245g) semolina flour
  • 1 cup (135g) all-purpose flour
  • ½ tsp salt
  • 1 tbsp powdered sugar
  • 1 ½ tsp baking powder
  • 2 tsp active dry yeast
  • 3 cups (700ml) lukewarm water

for the syrup:

  • ~ 1 cup butter or vegan margarine
  • ~ 1 cup honey or agave nectar

INSTRUCTIONS:

for the baghrir:

1. add semolina flour, all-purpose flour, salt, sugar, baking powder, and yeast to a food processor or blender, and pulse a few times to mix. (if measuring by volume, make sure to measure the all-purpose flour by spooning it into a measuring cup until heaping and then levelling off the excess–scooping with the measuring cup will pack the flour and cause you to add too much.)

2. with the food processor running on low, slowly add all of the water–a thin batter should form. continue to blend for another minute until well combined.

3. pour the batter into a large bowl and cover. let rest for about 20 minutes.

4. heat an ungreased pan over medium / medium-low heat for a few minutes. pour about ½ cup of batter into the middle of the pan–it will spread out into a circle on its own. you should soon see holes start to form in the surface of the baghrir. if holes don’t form as expected, your batter may be too thick–stir some water into it and leave it to rest for another 10-20 minutes. the batter should be very slightly frothy before you begin to use it (but don’t let it rest for too long either!).

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5. continue to cook until there are no more raw spots on the top of the baghrir, then remove to a plate with a spatula. the baghrir are only cooked on one side (though in some regions of Morocco they are cooked on top for just a few seconds–then they’re referred to as

khringos). if the bottom of the baghrir are browning before the top is cooked through, lower the heat a bit.

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for the syrup:

1. heat butter and honey, stirring often, in a small pan over medium heat until the honey is bubbling and the butter is melted. dip the baghrir quickly into the syrup, or pour the syrup over the baghrir.

baghrir are served warm with syrup or jam and are a popular Ramadan or snack food. typically they are rolled up and eaten with your fingers.

vegetable batbout (Moroccan stuffed flatbread with peppers,…

vegetable batbout (Moroccan stuffed flatbread with peppers, tomatoes and vermicelli)

recipe under the cut!

INGREDIENTS:

for the bread:

  • 4 cups (540g) all-purpose flour
  • 1 tbsp active dry yeast
  • 1 ½ tsp salt
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • about 1 ½ cups water

for the filling:

  • 2 green peppers, seeded and diced
  • 2 tomatoes
  • 1 onion
  • 3 cloves garlic
  • 1 tbsp plus 1 tsp paprika
  • 1 tbsp cumin
  • 1 tbsp salt
  • 1 tbsp black pepper
  • 1 ½ tsp ginger
  • ¼ cup green olives, chopped (optional)
  • 6-8 capers, minced (optional)

INSTRUCTIONS:

for the bread:

1. mix dry ingredients in a large bowl. make a well in the flour and add in just enough water to make a smooth, non-sticky dough. you may need more than 1 ½ cup.

2. knead the dough for about 15 minutes on a clean surface until it is very smooth and elastic.

3. cover a surface with flour or semolina flour and roll out to about ¼ inch in thickness, then cut out circles of the desired size with a cookie cutter or a glass, rolling the dough out again as necessary.

4. cover with a lightly floured towel and allow to rise for 1-2 hours, until the discs of dough puff up.

5. cook dough in a dry pan over medium heat until golden brown on both sides. set aside.

for the filling:

1. heat olive oil in a large pan over medium heat until sizzling. add onion, garlic, and spices and cook for about 5 minutes, until the onion starts to turn translucent.

2. add diced green peppers and cover. cook, stirring occasionally, for 5-10 minutes until softened.

3. peel tomatoes by placing in a covered bowl with boiling water for a few minutes. drain and rinse with cool water and remove the skins with your hands. dice.

4 add tomatoes and cook, uncovered, until the water reduces. remove from heat.

5. soak vermicelli in just-boiled water in a covered bowl for 1-2 minutes until cooked through. add to mixture.

6. add olives and capers, if desired.

to assemble:

1. cut bread circles open with a sharp knife and stuff with filling.

batbout are served warm as an appetiser for a main dish.

sweet potato and butternut squash tajine with almonds and golden…

sweet potato and butternut squash tajine with almonds and golden raisins

recipe under the cut!

ingredients:

  • 1 medium butternut squash, peeled and cubed (about 5 cups)
  • 3 sweet potatoes, peeled and cubed
  • 2 yellow onions, chopped
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced and crushed
  • pinch of saffron
  • 2 tsp ras el hanout (optional)
  • 1 tsp ginger
  • 1 tsp nutmeg
  • ½ tsp mace
  • 1 tsp fennel
  • 1 tsp anise seed
  • 1 tsp cumin
  • 1 tsp paprika
  • ½ tsp black pepper
  • salt to taste (about 2 tsp)
  • 2 sticks cinnamon
  • ¼ cup olive oil
  • ½ cup golden raisins
  • ½ cup almonds, blanched

instructions:

1. prepare the butternut squash by peeling it (microwaving it for about 30 seconds will make this easier), halving it lengthwise, scraping out the seeds and pulp, and cutting it into cubes of about 1″ in width.

2. peel the sweet potatoes and cut them into cubes of about the same size.

3. arrange onions and garlic in the bottom of a large clay cooking tajine (you can also use a Dutch oven, a slow cooker, or a thick pot with a diffuser). add the pinch of saffron, then arrange squash and potatoes in an even layer over the onions.

4. sprinkle the spices over the vegetables (you can play around with these but this is what I used), add the cinnamon sticks, and drizzle the olive oil over top.

5. cover the tajine and cook on low with a diffuser for about 30 minutes, until the squash and sweet potatoes begin to soften.

6. if using unblanched almonds, blanch them while the tajine cooks by placing them into boiling water for about a minute, draining and rinsing with cool water, then pinching the skin off each one.

7. after 30 minutes, add the golden raisins and blanched almonds and cook for another 10-15 minutes, until butternut squash and sweet potato are soft and cooked through.

tajines are typically eaten with khobz

taktouka (Moroccan cooked salad with green peppers, tomatoes,…

taktouka (Moroccan cooked salad with green peppers, tomatoes, and spices)

recipe under the cut!

ingredients:

  • 2 green bell peppers
  • 5 medium tomatoes
  • 2 tbsp olive oil
  • 4 garlic cloves, minced and crushed
  • 1 small bunch of cilantro, diced
  • 1 small bunch of parsley, diced
  • 2 tsp cumin
  • 2 tsp paprika
  • a pinch of cayenne pepper (optional)
  • ½ tsp black pepper
  • 1 tsp salt

instructions:

1. char the skin of the peppers by roasting them on the burner of a gas or electric coil stove set to high, or on a grill, turning periodically with tongs or forks. if you don’t have a gas or electric coil stove or grill, you can roast the peppers in the upper third of an oven set to broil for 20 minutes, turning 4-5 times. all sides of the peppers should be black.

2. place the peppers in a covered pot, under an upside-down mixing bowl, or in a large zipped plastic bag for about 15 minutes to trap steam and make them easier to peel.

3. peel tomatoes by placing them in a covered bowl with just-boiled water for about a minute–this should make the skins easy to remove. seed and mince the peeled tomatoes.

4. remove the skin from the peppers, seed them, and mince them.

5. heat olive oil over medium heat until sizzling. add crushed garlic, cumin, paprika, cayenne pepper, black pepper, and salt and sauté until aromatic, about 30 seconds. add minced tomatoes and cook for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the mixture begins to thicken.

6. add peppers, parsley, and cilantro and cook, stirring occasionally, for another 15-20 minutes until the mixture is dry. if the pepper is not cooked, add a few tablespoons of water and continue to cook.

7. top the salad with green or Beldi olives, slices of preserved lemon rind, and/or parsley as desired.

taktouka is served hot or cold with khobz as an appetizer or side dish.

msmen (Moroccan layered crêpes)recipe under the cut!(makes about…

msmen (Moroccan layered crêpes)

recipe under the cut!

(makes about 24)

INGREDIENTS:

for the dough:

  • 2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 2 cups semolina flour
  • 1 ½ tsp salt
  • 2 tsp sugar
  • ½ tsp active dry yeast
  • 1 ½ cup warm water

for assembly:

  • about ¼ cup smen / butter / vegan margarine
  • about ½ cup semolina flour
  • oil for coating and cooking

INSTRUCTIONS:

1. mix dry ingredients in a large bowl. add just enough water to create a smooth, non-sticky dough–you may need less than 1 ½ cup.

2. knead dough on a lightly floured surface for about 10 minutes, until it is very smooth and elastic.

3. oil a baking sheet or another clean work surface. oil your hands and divide the dough into balls of about 1.5 – 2″ in diameter (or more, if you want to make larger msmen)

by pinching it between your forefinger and your thumb. add more oil to your hands as necessary. place the dough balls onto the oiled surface, cover, and allow to rest for about 20 minutes.

4. start with the first ball that you formed and work your way towards the last. with oiled hands, stretch each ball of dough out into a circle that is as thin as possible without tearing–the oil should help to make the dough more supple. the dough should be partially transparent.

5. dot the circle of dough with butter and sprinkle it with a bit of semolina flour.

6. fold one edge of the dough into the center of the circle, sprinkle with semolina, and then fold the other edge into the center. you should end up with the circle folded in thirds, like an envelope.

7. sprinkle the dough with semolina again. fold the top of the strip of dough down into the center, sprinkle again with semolina, and then fold the bottom of the strip up to form a sqare. place the square back on your oiled surface and repeat for each ball of dough.

8. again, start with the first square you formed and work your way to the last. on an oiled surface, flatten each square with your fingers until about doubles in size, trying to keep the folds still aligned with the edges of the square.

9. fry each square in a lightly oiled pan over medium heat for about two minutes on each side until golden brown. pressing down on each square for a few seconds with your hands or the flat end of a spatula will help them to cook evenly. you may find it expedient to fry the squares you’ve already formed while you’re flattening more.

10. place each finished square on a plate lined with paper towels to absorb excess oil. add a bit more oil to the pan as necessary–I found it helpful to do this when 1/3 of the squares were fried, and again at 2/3 of the way through. serve hot.

msmen are typically eaten for breakfast or as an afternoon snack, spread with honey, jam, cheese, Nutella, you name it!

harcha (Moroccan semolina flatbread)recipe under the…

harcha (Moroccan semolina flatbread)

recipe under the cut!

ingredients:

  • 2 cups semolina flour
  • 2 tbsp plus 1 tsp granulated sugar
  • 2 tsp baking powder
  • ½ tsp salt
  • ½ cup melted butter, smen, or non-dairy margarine
  • ½ cup plus ~2 tbsp milk or non-dairy milk

instructions:

1. mix dry ingredients in a large bowl.

2. add melted butter and mix with your hands until the grains of semolina are well-moistened.

3. add in ½ cup of milk and mix with your hands again. add additional milk, 1 tbsp at a time, until dough is wet and easily forms a ball.

4. let rest for 5-10 minutes to allow the semolina to absorb the liquid.

5. cover a surface with more semolina. flatten the dough onto the surface using your hands to a thickness of about ½ inch, then cut out harcha with a cookie cutter or a large glass– or form small balls of dough and flatten them out to a thickness of about ½ inch.

6. heat a pan for a few minutes over medium-low heat. cook harcha for about 10 minutes on each side, until firm and golden brown.

harcha are commonly served for breakfast or snacks, cut open and filled with jam, honey, cheese, or olive oil.

vegetable pastilla (Moroccan sweet and savoury pie with squash,…

vegetable pastilla (Moroccan sweet and savoury pie with squash, chickpeas, and almonds)

recipe under the cut!

I’ve substituted the typical pigeon or chicken with zucchini, yellow squash, and chickpeas in this vegan recipe. for the shell you’ll need to make warqa dough (which isn’t really commercially available outside of Morocco), or you can substitute store-bought phyllo dough, which isn’t quite as thin and crispy but will do the trick.

INGREDIENTS

for the warqa dough:

  • 1 ¾ cup high-gluten bread flour
  • ¼ cup semolina flour / durum flour (or substitute all-purpose flour)
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 2 tsp lemon juice
  • 1 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 ¾ cup water

savoury filling:

  • 1 zucchini
  • 1 yellow squash
  • 3 tbsp olive oil 
  • 1 stick of cinnmaon, or 1 tsp ground cinnamon
  • 1 ¼ tsp black peppercorns, or 1 tsp black pepper
  • 1 tsp coriander seeds, or ¾ tsp ground coriander
  • 1 tsp cumin seeds, or ¾ tsp ground cumin
  • ¾ tsp ground paprika
  • 1 pinch saffron threads
  • 1 tbsp plus 1 tsp ras el hanout spice mix
  • 2 tsp salt
  • 1 large yellow onion, diced
  • 4-5 cloves of garlic, diced
  • 2 tbsp olive oil
  • 1 inch of fresh ginger (or 2 tsp ground ginger)
  • ½ cup dried chickpeas soaked overnight, or 1 can chickpeas
  • 3 vegan eggs from Follow Your Heart (optional)
  • 1 small bouquet of parsley, diced
  • 1 small bouquet of cilantro, diced

almond filling:

  • 1 ½ cup almonds
  • 1 tbsp cinnamon
  • ¼ cup plus 1 tbsp granulated sugar
  • 1 tbsp orange blossom water

to form the pastilla:

  • ¼ cup vegan margarine, melted

topping:

  • additional almonds (optional)
  • about 2 tbsp powdered sugar
  • about 1 tbsp ground cinnamon

INSTRUCTIONS:

for the warqa:

1. add flours and salt to a food processor and pulse a few times to sift.

2. add the wet ingredients and process on low for 1-2 minutes, until you get a smooth batter.

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3. refrigerate the batter for at least two hours, or overnight.

4. bring a few inches of water to a fast boil in a large pot, and place a large, nonstick pan over the pot, tying it with kitchen string if necessary–this will help to evenly distribute heat and prevent the warqa from drying out. allow the pan to heat for a few minutes.

5. using a pastry brush, brush a thin layer of batter onto the pan in large, circular strokes, filling the entire pan. carefully apply a second layer to any bare spots (but don’t worry about small holes or feathery edges).

6. cook until the warqa becomes opaque and the edges start to curl, about 2 minutes. loosen the edges of the dough with a spatula and peel the dough off of the pan using your hands.

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7. flip the dough over onto a plate covered with a paper towel, and lay another paper towel on top of it. repeat, stacking the sheets of dough on top of each other, until you’ve used all of the batter.

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for the savoury filling:

1. toast cinnamon stick, black peppercorns, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, and saffron threads in a dry skillet over medium heat for a few minutes until fragrant. (if using ground spices, just toast the saffron threads.)

2. grind spices in a spice mill (I use a coffee grinder). if you’re using ground spices, you can just crush the toasted saffron threads with your fingers or in a mortal and pestle.

3. mix ground spices, ras el hanout, and 2 tsp salt with 3 tbsp olive oil–if you’re using ground ginger, add it now. chop the zucchini and yellow squash into small cubes and coat them with the spiced oil.

4. spread the squash evenly in a single layer over a baking sheet and roast at 450F for 20 minutes.

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5. heat 2 tbsp olive oil in a large pan on medium heat for a few minutes until sizzling. add diced onion and garlic and grated ginger and cook for a few minutes until fragrant, stirring occasionally.

6. (optional): whisk ¼ cup plus 2 tbsp Follow Your Heart vegan egg mix with 1 ½ cups of cold water until smooth.

7. add egg mixture, roasted squash, chickpeas, parsley, and cilantro to the pan with the onion and garlic. heat, stirring occasionally, until the eggs are fully cooked and appear scrambled (or until the filling is warmed through, if you’re omitting the eggs).

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for the almond filling:

1. blanch the almonds by boiling them in water for about a minute, emptying them into a colander and rinsing with cool water, and gently pinching the skins to remove them.

2. heat about 2 tsp of vegetable oil on medium in a large pan and fry the almonds for about 10 minutes, stirring often, until golden brown. set aside some almonds for a topping, if desired.

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3. pulse almonds, sugar, cinnamon, and orange blossom water a few times in a food processor until you get coarse crumbs.

forming the pastilla:

1. place one sheet of warqa in the bottom of a pie pan and brush with melted margarine. place 4-5 more sheets around the pan so that they cover all of the sides and hang over the edge, brushing each one with more melted margarine. add 2 more sheets of warqa in the middle, brushing each with margarine.

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2. place the savoury filling in the pie, making sure that it’s even and spread all the way to the edges.

3. (optional): add another sheet or two of warqa on top of the savoury filling and brush with margarine.

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4. spread the almond filling over the warqa, making sure that it’s even and spread all the way to the edges.

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5. add another 2-3 sheets of warqa, brushing each with margarine, and fold the excess inwards.

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6. fold the excess warqa around the sides of the pan inwards, brushing each sheet with more melted margarine.

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7. cover the pastilla with 1-2 more sheets of warqa, tucking the excess into the sides of the pie pan. brush the entire thing with more margarine to seal.

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8. bake on the center rack of an oven at 400F for about 40 minutes, until warqa is golden brown and crisp. allow to cool slightly before removing from pan.

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to decorate:

1. sift powdered sugar evenly onto the surface of the pastilla.

2. add ground cinnamon, spread evenly or in a pattern as desired (I formed diamonds by criss-crossing lines of cinnamon carefully with a small spoon).

3. add the almonds you kept back from the almond filling as desired. you can also use sliced or slivered almonds. try doing an image search for “Moroccan pastilla” or “pastilla marocaine” for decoration ideas.

cut carefully and serve! pastilla is often eaten with harissa, a North African hot sauce made with red peppers.

Moroccan vegetable couscous (without a couscoussier!)recipe…

Moroccan vegetable couscous (without a couscoussier!)

recipe under the cut

serves about 10

INGREDIENTS:

for the vegetables:

  • 1 onion
  • 2 potatoes or sweet potatoes
  • 2 turnips
  • 2 carrots
  • 1 zucchini
  • 3 medium tomatoes
  • ½ of a small cabbage
  • 1 cup of dried chickpeas, soaked overnight, or 1 can of chickpeas
  • ¼ cup olive oil
  • 4-5 tbsp ras el hanout spice blend
  • 1 tsp cumin
  • 1 tsp paprika
  • 1 tsp ginger
  • 1 tsp cinnamon or 1 whole cinnamon stick
  • 1 large pinch saffron
  • salt to taste (about 1 tbsp)
  • ¼ cup parsley
  • ¼ cup cilantro
  • 1-2 red chili peppers

this is a good baseline but feel free to add in or substitute whatever vegetables you like or have on hand! other vegetables you can try include pumpkin and eggplant.

for the couscous:

  • 3 cups dry Moroccan couscous
  • 3 cups boiling water
  • 3 tbsp olive oil
  • ½ tsp salt
  • 2 tbsp smen (Moroccan clarified butter), butter, or vegan margarine (optional)

INSTRUCTIONS:

for the vegetables:

1. prepare the vegetables: chop the onion, peel the potatoes and turnips and cut them into large cubes; peel the carrots and cut them into large chunks (horizontally in pieces of about 3 inches and then in half lengthwise); wash the zucchini and cut it in the same way; peel the tomatoes (placing them in a covered bowl for about a minute with some boiling water should make this easy) and cut them into forths, keeping the seeds; cut the cabbage into very large pieces; and dice the parsley and cilantro.

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2. heat olive oil in a large pot on medium-high until it starts to shimmer. add chopped onion and ras el hanout, cumin, paprika, ginger, cinnamon, and salt and saute until the onion begins to turn transluent (about 8 minutes).

3. lower the heat to medium / medium-low. add potatoes, turnips, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage, chickpeas (if using dried), saffron, parsley, and cilantro to the pot along with 2 cups of water. cover and cook for about an hour.

4. add the zucchini, red chilis, chickpeas (if using canned) and another cup of water. taste and adjust spices. cover and continue to cook until the zucchini is slightly soft, about 15 minutes. remove from heat.

for the couscous:

1. add 3 cups of couscous to a large bowl. add olive oil and work the couscous with your fingers until the grains are coated in the oil.

2. add salt and boiling water, then cover the bowl. allow couscous to steam for about 10 minutes.

3. add butter if desired and fluff up the couscous with a fork–it should be cooked through and much larger in volume.

to serve:

1. in a large dish, pile the couscous in a dome-like shape.

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2. pour some of the sauce from the pot over the couscous, then top the dome with the vegetables as desired. (make sure to fish out the cinnamon stick if you used one!)

couscous dishes are always eaten with khobz and are especially popular during Ramadhan.

Ras el Hanout (Moroccan spice blend)recipe under the cut!makes…

Ras el Hanout (Moroccan spice blend)

recipe under the cut!

makes about ¾ cup (a double recipe is pictured)

recipes for ras el hanout vary from region to region and from person to person, so feel free to play around with the measurements! main ingredients are bolded; all others are more or less optional. don’t worry too much if you don’t have anything in particular!

ingredients:

  • 1 tbsp whole black peppercorns, or 2 tsp ground black pepper
  • 1 ½ tsp whole white peppercorns, or 1 tsp ground white pepper
  • 2 ½ tsp coriander seeds, or 2 tsp ground coriander
  • 1 large cinnamon stick, broken up, or 2 tsp ground cinnamon
  • About 20 green cardamom pods, or 1½ teaspoons ground cardamom
  • 1 tsp whole fennel seeds, or ¾ tsp ground fennel seeds
  • 1 tsp dried anise seeds, or ¾ teaspoon ground anise seed
  • 1 ½ tsp cubeb berries, or 1 tsp ground cubeb
  • 6 whole cloves, or ½ teaspoon ground cloves
  • 2 tsp allspice berries, or 2 tsp ground allspice
  • 2 ½ tsp cumin seeds, or 2 tsp ground cumin
  • 2 stars of star anise
  • 2 dried bay leaves
  • 1 tbsp ground ginger
  • 2 tsp ground chili powder
  • 2 tsp ground paprika (or 1 tsp Hungarian sweet paprika and 1 tsp Hungarian hot paprika)
  • 2 tsp ground turmeric
  • 1½ tsp ground orris root
  • 1½ tsp ground mace
  • 1½ tsp freshly grated nutmeg, or ground nutmeg
  • 1 tsp ground galangal
  • 1 teaspoon dried lavender
  • 1 teaspoon dried rose petals
  • ½ teaspoon ground fenugreek
  • ½ teaspoon ground cayenne pepper

instructions:

if using whole spices:

1. toast
peppercorns, coriander seeds, cinnamon, cardamom pods, fennel seeds, anise
seeds, cubeb berries, cloves, allspice berries, star anise, and bay leaves in a dry skillet
over medium-low heat for a few minutes until fragrant, agitating occasionally to
avoid burning. allow to cool slightly.

2. open
cardamom pods by crushing them gently with a pestle or the flat of a knife, and
extract the seeds.

3. add all of the
toasted spices and the remaining ground spices to a spice mill (I use a coffee
grinder reserved for grinding spices) and grind spices into a fine powder. store spice mix in an airtight container.

if using ground spices:

1. mix all spices together in a small bowl. store in an airtight container.

this spice mix is very versatile and can be used in meat and vegetable dishes, soups, and tajines!